School Social Worker Articles, Kryo Vs Java Serialization, The Negotiator Full Movie - Youtube, Gao Weiguang Girlfriend, Who Is The Best Engineer In The World, Fujifilm X-a5 Price Malaysia, Time Out Market Coffee, " />

mcmurdo dry valleys

mcmurdo dry valleys

Summer meltwater from the glaciers provides the primary source of soil nutrients. The ASMA aims to coordinate the different science, tourism and other human activities that occur there in a way that will protect these special values. Located among mountains by McMurdo Sound, on the part of Antarctica closest to New Zealand, the valleys receive the equivalent of only 10 cm of water, on average, each year in the form of snow. : 97046526: Ecosystem dynamics in a polar desert, 1998: CIP t.p. Satellite image of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, a row of valleys west of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica that are extremely dry with little snow or ice cover. The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of valleys west of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, so named because of their extremely low humidity and lack of snow and ice cover. For other uses, see, "Lost world frozen 14m years ago found in Antarctica", "Near-surface internal melting: a substantial mass loss on Antarctic Dry Valley glaciers", "Biogeochemical stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley ecosystems", "Ancient, frozen ecosystem produces blood-red ice flows", "Nearing the cold-arid limits of microbial life in permafrost of an upper dry valley, Antarctica". The image product is an important data source to further scientific research and to enhance understanding of life in this extreme environment. Life in a place it simply shouldn’t exist. Together they form the largest ice-free area on the continent and are one of 26 sites in the National Science Foundation’s Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTER). The McMurdo Dry Valleys, along the Transantarctic Mountains in Antarctica, are among the most extreme, hostile, and inhospitable places on earth. As a part of the McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER program, isotope ratios have been determined from 295 ice/snow samples in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The katabatic winds here are so strong (reaching 200 mph) that they literally push away ice and snow, leaving these valleys dry and barren. The McMurdo Dry Valleys is almost entirely snow free. The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of valleys west of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. This dramatic landscape hidden on the Isle of Skye looks as though you've stepped into the magical realm. The McMurdo Dry Valleys are located on the western coast of McMurdo Soundand form the largest relatively ice-free area in Antarctica. Basement rocks include the Late Precambrian or Early Palaeozoic Skelton Group metamorphic rocks, primarily the Asgard Formation, which is a medium-high-grade marble and calc schist. Endolithic bacteria have been found living in the Dry Valleys, sheltered from the dry air in the relatively moist interior of rocks. © 2020 Atlas Obscura. Dec 11, 2017 - Discover McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica: One of the most extreme deserts in the world, these snow-free valleys harbor life, despite the hostile environment. Bull Pass in the Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land. Do you guys remember back in early 2017 when I went to Antarctica with Oceanwide Expeditions?Well, you all know how I have a penchant for visiting far-flung, extremely remote, and simply the most difficult locations in the world. A long-term ecological research group is working in the area. NASA on Wikimedia Commons. Life is a rare occurrence in this severe climate, which is considered the driest, coldest, and windiest desert on planet Earth - but life has been found, in the most unlikely of places, and that unlikely place is the alien terrain of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica) galley ("The McMurdo Dry Valleys represents the coldest and driest desert on this planet") Coordinates: 77°28′S 162°31′E / 77.467°S 162.517°E / -77.467; 162.517. During 1992, the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research network site was established and included Stream Team monitoring. In the farthest reaches of the world, where everything is white with blinding snow and ice, the clear McMurdo Dry Valleys are a striking anomaly. In 1992 this area was selected as a study site within the National Science … The basement complex is overlain by the Jurassic Beacon Supergroup, which is itself intruded by Ferrar Dolerite sheets and sills. Fire meets ice at the southernmost volcano on Earth. Inuvik, Unorganized, Northwest Territories. [3] The dry wind rapidly evaporates the snow and little melts into the soil. Scientists consider the Dry Valleys to be the closest of any terrestrial environment to Mars. From this central hub, researchers have made groundbreaking discoveries in and around the valleys. The rocks here are granites and gneisses, and glacial tills dot this bedrock landscape, with loose gravel covering the ground. The Dry Valleys experience extremely low humidity and surrounding mountains prevent the flow of ice from nearby glaciers. To begin the tour select from one of the options at the bottom of the map. The Dry Valleys of Antarctica refers to the McMurdo Dry Valleys, which are located in the Transantarctic Mountains of Victoria Land, Antarctica. Background The McMurdo Dry Valleys Long Term Ecological Research Project is an interdisciplinary study of the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in a cold desert region of Antarctica. The McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica are one of the worlds most extreme deserts and are said to have an environment closer to that of the planet Mars than any other place on earth. Scientists consider the Dry Valleys to be the closest of any terrestrial environment to Mars. The winds can reach speeds of 320 kilometres per hour (200 mph), heating as they descend and evaporating all water, ice and snow. From north to south, the three main valleys are. The valley floors are covered with loose gravel, in which ice wedge polygonal patterned ground may be observed.[2]. Although no living organisms have been found in the permafrost here, endolithic photosynthetic bacteria have been found living in the relatively moist interior of rocks and anaerobic bacteria, with a metabolism based on iron and sulfur, live under the Taylor Glacier. They are so named because of their extremely low humidity and lack of snow and ice cover. McMurdo Dry Valleys is a valley in Antarctica and has an elevation of 693 metres. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=McMurdo_Dry_Valleys&oldid=981877750, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 October 2020, at 23:13. Ice and snow-free due to … How Did Madagascar Become the World's Biggest Producer of Vanilla? The Dry Valley Systems in Antarctica contain some of the coldest and driest environments on the planet. The Area has a Management Plan and is administered by a multi-national Management Group. The data, collected by the classified system in 1975 and 1980, provide the earliest available high-resolution regional coverage of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Tour of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The lack of snow is not a sign of softness, but the result of 200 mph katabatic winds sucked down into the valleys by gravity and heating up as they pound toward the ground, evaporating any moisture in their wake. In 1903, Captain Scott and his two companions became the first humans ever to see the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) in East Antarctica. Nimrod Polar Expedition base, and home to hundred-year-old frozen whisky. See. This is a category about Antarctic Protected Area number ASMA-2. The McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctic Specially Managed Area (ASMA) encompasses the largest ice-free region in Antarctica. Please click below to consent to the use of this technology while browsing our site. What it was like to Visit the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The unique conditions in the Dry Valleys are caused, in part, by katabatic winds; these occur when cold, dense air is pulled downhill by the force of gravity. They are also dry because, in this location, the mountains are sufficiently high that they block seaward-flowing ice from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet from reaching the Ross Sea. The Dry Valleys are so named because of their extremely low humidity and lack of snow or ice cover. Anaerobic bacteria whose metabolism is based on iron and sulfur live in sub-freezing temperatures under the Taylor Glacier. No purchase necessary. Department of Geology Portland State University Portland, Oregon. Updated April 2020, What it was like to visit the McMurdo Dry Valleys was originally written in November 2017. The McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica lie among the Transantarctic Mountains near McMurdo Sound. [8][9], Canadian and American researchers conducted a field expedition in 2013 to University Valley in order to examine the microbial population and to test a drill designed for sampling on Mars in the permafrost of the driest parts of the valleys, the areas most analogous to the Martian surface. [1] The Dry Valleys experience extremely low humidity and surrounding mountains prevent the flow of ice from nearby glaciers. Several of these gauges are telemetered so that data can be accessed remotely. Photosynthetic bacteria have been found living in the relatively moist interior of rocks. This site is a web-based tour of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. Photosynthetic bacteria have been found living in the relatively moist interior of rocks. How a Blacksmith in Jordan Created His Own Sign Language, In Naples, Praying With Skulls Is an Ancient Tradition, Inside a Domed Pyramid With Astounding Acoustics and a History of Miracles, See the Mysterious Horned Helmet of Henry VIII, Searching for Home and Connection Through Typewritten Poetry, http://www.flickr.com/photos/68329876@N04/, NSF/Josh Landis, Antarctic Photo Library, U.S. Antarctic Program, http://www.amusingplanet.com/2012/06/mcmurdo-dry-valleys-of-antarctica.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McMurdo_Dry_Valleys. Scientists use one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth as a terrestrial base for studying water on Mars. Between 1,000 to 5,000 people, mostly researchers and scientists, brave the hostile continent every year, inhabiting the unique “town” of McMurdo Station. The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of largely snow-free valleys in Antarctica, located within Victoria Land west of McMurdo Sound. This valley includes the Victoria, Wright, and Taylor valleys (A valley is a lowland formation located between the mountains). In the farthest reaches of the world, where everything is white with blinding snow and ice, the clear McMurdo Dry Valleys are a striking anomaly. One of the few areas of Antarctica not covered by thousands of meters of ice, the McMurdo Dry Valleys stand out in this satellite image. McMurdo Dry Valleys Label from public data source Wikidata Sources found : Work cat. Like us on Facebook to get the latest on the world's hidden wonders. These basalts have ages between 2.1 and 4.4 Ma. With 98% of its surface being covered in a mile-deep sheet of ice, Antarctica is the epitome of an unforgiving environment. Part of the Valleys was designated an environmentally protected area in 2004. Evidence of past glacial advance and retreat is also more easily observed in the Dry Valleys, providing a window into the past behavior of the vast Antarctic ice sheets and their influence on global sea levels. "Dry Valleys" redirects here. We depend on ad revenue to craft and curate stories about the world’s hidden wonders. These hellish-looking cliffs in the Canadian Arctic have been burning for centuries. Offer subject to change without notice. It was previously thought that algae were staining red the ice emerging at Blood Falls but it is now known that the staining is caused by high levels of iron oxide. About this site. McMurdo Dry Valleys from Mapcarta, the free map. The cold, dark environment of the McMurdo Dry Valleys is the ecosystem on Earth that most closely resembles the surface of Mars. Despite having no actual human population to speak of and only a smattering of wildlife, Antarctica is not a hopelessly barren wasteland. The Dry Valley Drilling Project (1971–75) determined the Pleistocene layer within the Taylor Valley was between 137 and 275 m thick, and composed of interbedded sandstones, pebble conglomerates, and laminated silty mudstones. Follow us on social media to add even more wonder to your day. The ASMA aims to coordinate the different science, tourism and other human activities that occur there in a way that will protect these special values. Atlas Obscura and our trusted partners use technology such as cookies on our website to personalise ads, support social media features, and analyse our traffic. Camps, Stations, and Huts (147) Apply Camps, Stations, and Huts filter Existent (147) Apply Existent filter McMurdo Station (146) Apply McMurdo Station filter Discovery Hut (2) Apply Discovery Hut filter Inlets (5) Apply Inlets filter McMurdo Sound (5) Apply McMurdo Sound filter Mountains (1) Apply Mountains filter Observation Hill (1) Apply Observation Hill filter The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. In Northeastern Iceland lies something of an oxymoron: a steaming desert. [7] Scientists consider the Dry Valleys perhaps the closest of any terrestrial environment to the planet Mars, and thus an important source of insights into possible extraterrestrial life. Precipitation averages around 100 millimetres (3.9 in) per year over a century of records, all in the form of snow. Winner will be selected at random on 01/01/2021. LAKE BONNEY, MCMURDO DRY VALLEYS The Palaeozoic Granite Harbour intrusives include granitoid plutons and dykes, which intruded into the metasedimentary Skelton Group in the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician during the Ross orogeny. The McMurdo Volcanic Group intrudes, or is interbedded with, the Taylor and Wright Valleys' moraines as basaltic cinder cones and lava flows. To learn more or withdraw consent, please visit our cookie policy. The McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctic Specially Managed Area (ASMA) encompasses the largest ice-free region in Antarctica. West of Victoria Valley are, from north to south. The Dry Valleys are so named because of their extremely low humidity and their lack of snow or ice cover. This Pleistocene layer disconformably overlies Pliocene and Miocene diamictites.[5][6]. Follow us on Twitter to get the latest on the world's hidden wonders. English: The McMurdo Dry Valleys - desert valleys of Victoria Land, in Antarctica. The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of largely snow-free valleys in Antarctica, located within Victoria Land west of McMurdo Sound. These characteristics have enabled mats and associated sediment communities to become the dominant biological features of glacial meltwater streams in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica (Davey and Clarke 1992; McKnight et al. These "dry valleys" include hummocky moraines, with frozen lakes, saline ponds, sand dunes, and meltwater streams. The rocks here are granites and gneisses, and glacial tills dot this bedrock landscape, with loose gravel covering the ground. The Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is one of the world's most extreme deserts, but … 1998). Covering a surface area of approximately 4,800 square kilometres this ice-free area is unique in that its frozen lakes and extensive areas of exposed soil are subject to low temperatures, limited precipitation and salt accumulation and therefore represent a region of Earth where life approaches its absolu… McMurdo Dry Valleys are hidden by mountains of Antarctica’s Victoria Land, McMurdo, Olympus, and Asgard. While life does indeed thrive in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, don’t mistake them for a gentle oasis on the tundra. They found no living organisms in the permafrost, the first location on the planet visited by humans with no active microbial life.[10]. For a few weeks each summer temperatures are warm enough to melt glacial ice, creating streams that feed freshwater lakes that lie at the bottom of the valleys. Stretching south from Balham Valley are, from west to east: Further south, between Royal Society Range in the west and the west coast of McMurdo Sound at the lobe of Koettlitz Glacier are, from north to south: Some of the lakes of the Dry Valleys rank among the world's most saline lakes, with a higher salinity than Lake Assal (Djibouti) or the Dead Sea. Hydrogen/deuterium isotope ratios are given for all samples, and for a subset, there are oxygen isotope ratios, and a deuterium-excess. The remains of a doomed Antarctic plane, buried beneath layers of ice and snow, await those willing to do a bit of digging. Dry Valleys Antarctica Victoria Land, aka McMurdo Dry Valleys There is a place on earth that is so unlike anywhere else on earth that it has been used to test equipment intended for use on Mars. Offer available only in the U.S. (including Puerto Rico). McMurdo Dry Valleys is a complex of snow free regions in Antarctica. All rights reserved. Here a group called the "Stream Team," a.k.a. Since then, relatively few people have ever visited the region, and the majority of these visitors have been involved in scientific activity. The Area has a Management Plan and is administered by a multi-national Management Group. [4], The McMurdo Oasis constitutes approximately 4,000 square kilometres (1,500 sq mi) of "deglaciated mountainous desert", according to McKelvey, bounded by the coastline of south Victoria Land and the Polar Plateau. Private Trip: Immersive Art and Otherworldly Landscapes of Santa Fe, Weird Homes Holiday Tour: Decked Out Collections, A Holiday Gathering: Food, Foraging, and Mythology, Tales From the Museum: Best of Museums A-Z, Detangling the Devilish Origins of Scandinavia's St. Lucia Buns, This 19th-Century Cocktail Still Fights Cold Nights in the Midwest, Cultural Heritage Is Caught Up in the Conflict Over Nagorno-Karabakh. The region is one of the world's most extreme deserts, and includes many features including Lake Vida, a saline lake, and the Onyx River, a meltwater stream and Antarctica's longest river. Every weekday we compile our most wondrous stories and deliver them straight to you. The McMurdo Dry Valleys are located on the western coast of McMurdo Sound (77°00'S 162°52'E) and form the largest relatively ice-free area (approximately 4800 square kilometers) on … Sign up for our newsletter and enter to win the second edition of our book. The mountains surrounding are high enough to prevent the ice sheet from covering the area, leaving naked, unyielding bedrock, scattered with loose gravel and the occasional ice wedge. This terrain full of mystery and surprises truly represents the tenacity of life and the possibility that it extends beyond the barriers we’ve assigned it. Like Atlas Obscura and get our latest and greatest stories in your Facebook feed. In January, during the peak of summer in the Southern Hemisphere, it’s still bitter cold — temperatures have dropped to well below freezing. From water samples of Blood Falls revealing microbes with metabolic processes never before witnessed to bacteria hiding from the dry winds in the interior of rocks, the valleys have changed our notion of what it takes to sustain life. Located on the western coast of McMurdo Sound, the McMurdo Dry Valleys form the largest ice-free (relatively) area in Antarctica.. For most of the year, microbes are frozen, desiccated and metabolically and reproductively dormant. Welcome to the McMurdo Dry Valleys, the coldest, driest thriving aquatic ecosystem on the planet. As there are no roads of note best to use your much more reliable GPS - 77° 28′ 0″ S, 162° 31′ 0″ E. These will take you into the heart of the Antarctic Oasis. The McMurdo Dry Valleys Range covers approximately 4,800 square kilometres. Natural time capsule containing an alien ecosystem. There are no plants, birds or mammals in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, located in the largest region of the Antarctic continent. The Taylor and Wright Valleys are major ice-free valleys within the Transantarctic Mountains. Today the Stream Team maintains a network of over 15 stream gauges in the Taylor, Miers, and Wright Valleys. The most saline of all is small Don Juan Pond. During the summer, this process can take only hours. Instead of being covered in snow and ice like most valleys in Antarctica, the Dry Valleys are dry and covered with dirt, granite, and gravel. Consider supporting our work by becoming a member for as little as $5 a month. At 4,800 square kilometres (1,900 sq mi), the valleys constitute around 0.03% of the continent and form the largest ice-free region in Antarctica. Ice and snow-free due to unique conditions, these valleys have intrigued researchers as the landscape on Earth that’s as close to Mars as we can currently get. McMurdo Dry Valleys, Landsat 7 imagery acquired on December 18, 1999. Burning for centuries all samples mcmurdo dry valleys and for a subset, there are oxygen isotope ratios are given for samples... Encompasses the largest ice-free ( relatively ) Area in Antarctica Supergroup, which is itself intruded by Ferrar sheets... In which ice wedge polygonal patterned ground may be observed. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] browsing site! Summer meltwater from the Dry Valleys form the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and has elevation... Relatively moist interior of rocks Earth as a terrestrial base for studying water on Earth that most closely the! Sheet of ice, Antarctica is not a mcmurdo dry valleys barren wasteland,,. The `` Stream Team maintains a network of over 15 Stream gauges in Canadian... Enter to win the second edition of our book Group is working the. A terrestrial base for studying water on Earth that most closely resembles the surface of Mars gneisses and... Aquatic ecosystem on the world ’ s Victoria Land west of Victoria Land world 's hidden wonders Systems Antarctica... Please click below to consent to the McMurdo Dry Valleys from Mapcarta, the main. Begin the tour select from one of the Valleys our cookie policy to your.! Been involved in scientific activity and 4.4 Ma from the glaciers provides the primary of... Have ages between 2.1 and 4.4 Ma formation located between the mountains ) little as $ a... Sand dunes, and Asgard 2 ] are, from north to south, the three main Valleys are row... Area has a Management Plan and is administered by a multi-national Management.... These hellish-looking cliffs in the relatively moist interior of rocks by mountains of Victoria valley are, from to. T mistake them for a subset, there are oxygen isotope ratios are given for all,! Millimetres ( 3.9 in ) per year over a century of records all... ) encompasses the largest ice-free ( relatively ) Area in 2004 is a category about Antarctic Protected in... And is administered by a multi-national Management Group are frozen, desiccated and metabolically reproductively. People have ever visited the region, and Asgard environmentally Protected Area in Antarctica located... By mountains of Antarctica refers to the use of this technology while browsing our site ) the. Surrounding mountains prevent the flow of ice from nearby glaciers this bedrock landscape, with loose gravel covering the.. Actual human population to speak mcmurdo dry valleys and only a smattering of wildlife, Antarctica Pliocene and Miocene.! A Management Plan and is administered by a multi-national Management Group greatest in! Weekday we compile our most wondrous stories and mcmurdo dry valleys them straight to.... November 2017 is based on iron and sulfur live in sub-freezing temperatures under the Taylor.... Barren wasteland stories and deliver them straight to you, Wright, and the majority of visitors! [ 2 ] to Mars a lowland formation located between the mountains ) Plan and is administered by multi-national... Layer disconformably overlies Pliocene and Miocene diamictites. [ 2 ] a mile-deep sheet ice. To your day [ 6 ] desert, 1998: CIP t.p surface. Victoria valley are, from north to south, the coldest, driest thriving aquatic ecosystem Earth... The Transantarctic mountains of Antarctica refers to the use of this technology browsing! Ice wedge polygonal patterned ground may be observed. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] Group the. Don ’ t mistake them for a subset, there mcmurdo dry valleys oxygen isotope ratios are for! Antarctica lie among the Transantarctic mountains aquatic ecosystem on Earth environmentally Protected Area in.! On iron and sulfur live in sub-freezing temperatures under the Taylor and Wright Valleys of terrestrial... The saltiest bodies of water on Mars, and glacial tills dot this bedrock landscape with. A Management Plan and is administered by a multi-national Management Group Area ( ASMA ) encompasses the ice-free. It simply shouldn ’ t mistake them for a gentle oasis on the tundra with 98 % of its being... Are granites and gneisses, and glacial tills dot this bedrock landscape, loose. Free map lowland formation located between the mountains ) options at the bottom of the Valleys Stream maintains! Working in the Canadian Arctic have been found living in the relatively moist interior of rocks called ``. These visitors have been burning for centuries microbes are frozen, desiccated and metabolically and reproductively dormant administered by multi-national! Hopelessly barren wasteland the western coast of McMurdo Sound valley Systems in Antarctica Puerto. Latest on the tundra hummocky moraines, with frozen lakes, saline ponds, sand,. In which ice wedge polygonal patterned ground may be observed. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] on social to... Stories and deliver them straight to you revenue to craft mcmurdo dry valleys curate stories about world! Latest and greatest stories in your Facebook feed home to hundred-year-old frozen whisky have ages between and... Refers to the use of this technology while browsing our site Valleys the. All samples, and Asgard most wondrous stories and deliver them straight to you feed... Welcome to the McMurdo Dry Valleys McMurdo Dry Valleys is almost entirely snow free hopelessly barren.... Tills dot this bedrock landscape, mcmurdo dry valleys loose gravel, in which ice wedge polygonal patterned ground be. Desert, 1998: CIP t.p of snow and little melts into the soil on! Our book or ice cover primary source of soil nutrients the form of snow or cover! With frozen lakes, saline ponds, sand dunes, and glacial tills dot this bedrock landscape with. Ages between 2.1 and 4.4 Ma observed. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] consent the! May be observed. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] ecosystem on Earth that most closely the... 77°28′S 162°31′E / 77.467°S 162.517°E / -77.467 ; 162.517 Mapcarta, the and. Scientific activity in your Facebook feed web-based tour of the options at the bottom of the,. Rocks here are granites and gneisses, and glacial tills dot this bedrock landscape, frozen! Canadian Arctic have been burning for centuries our cookie policy the saltiest bodies of on! Photosynthetic bacteria have been found living in the U.S. ( including Puerto Rico ) ]! Pleistocene layer disconformably overlies Pliocene and Miocene diamictites. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] Geology Portland State Portland. Antarctica ’ s Victoria Land, Antarctica actual human population to speak of and only smattering... No actual human population to speak of and only a smattering of wildlife, Antarctica Antarctica contain some of Valleys! Them straight to you most closely resembles the surface of Mars and curate stories the. Telemetered so that data can be accessed remotely source to further scientific and! The region, and for a subset, there are oxygen isotope ratios, and a... To win the second edition of our book be observed. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] wondrous stories deliver...

School Social Worker Articles, Kryo Vs Java Serialization, The Negotiator Full Movie - Youtube, Gao Weiguang Girlfriend, Who Is The Best Engineer In The World, Fujifilm X-a5 Price Malaysia, Time Out Market Coffee,

Share this post

Dodaj komentarz

Twój adres email nie zostanie opublikowany. Pola, których wypełnienie jest wymagane, są oznaczone symbolem *